HealthSheets™


Diabetes and Heart Disease

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Take your medicines as directed each day, even if you feel fine.

If you have diabetes, you are 2 to 4 times more likely to have heart disease than someone without diabetes. And you are likely to get it at a younger age. This higher risk is because of diabetes. But it's also because of other risk factors for heart disease that happen in people with diabetes. But there’s good news. You can help control your health risks by making some changes in your life. You can take steps to cut your risk for heart disease by half. This is similar to the risk in people who don't have diabetes.

Your main risk factors

Three major risk factors for heart disease are high blood sugar, high blood pressure, and high levels of fat in the blood (lipids). By controlling these things, you can help keep your heart and arteries healthy. This may cut your chances of a heart attack.

  • Blood sugar. High blood sugar can make artery walls tough and rough. Plaque is waxy material in the blood. It can then build up along the artery walls. This makes it harder for blood to flow through the arteries. High blood sugar also raises the chances of having high blood pressure and high cholesterol.

  • Blood pressure. When blood pressure is high all the time, it causes your heart to work harder to pump blood. Artery walls become damaged. This makes it more likely for plaque to build up.

  • Lipids. Your body needs some blood fats (lipids) to stay healthy. But lipid levels that are too high can harm artery walls. Lipids include cholesterol and triglycerides. There are two kinds of cholesterol. LDL (“bad”) cholesterol can damage the arteries. But HDL (“good”) cholesterol helps clear LDL from the blood vessels. This helps keep the arteries healthy. When blood sugar is high, the level of triglycerides in the blood may also be high. This can also cause plaque to form. 

Other risk factors

Certain lifestyle factors can raise levels of your blood sugar, blood pressure, and lipids. Higher levels raise your risk for heart disease:

  • Smoking. Smoking damages the lining of your arteries. This allows plaque to build up in the artery walls. It also narrows the arteries. This can raise blood pressure and cause chest pain (angina). Smoking also raises your risk of getting type 2 diabetes.

  • Not being active. Not being active makes it harder for your heart to do its work. Inactivity is linked to many other problems, such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels. Inactivity also increases your risk of getting type 2 diabetes.

  • Being overweight. Being overweight makes it harder for your body to use insulin. It also makes your heart work too hard. Being overweight is also the main thing leading to type 2 diabetes, 

Changes you can make

The simple steps below can help keep your risk factors under control. Work with your healthcare team to reach your goals.

  • Quit smoking. Quitting smoking could save your life. Smoking harms the lining of the blood vessels and raises blood pressure. It also affects how your body uses insulin. This makes it harder to keep blood sugar under control. If you smoke and need help quitting, talk with your healthcare team. 

  • Test your blood sugar. Checking your blood sugar is the only way to know if it's under control. Test your blood sugar yourself. Also get your it tested in the lab, as directed.

  • Check your blood pressure and lipids. Monitoring your blood pressure and lipid levels can help you stay at safe levels. Visit your healthcare team as scheduled.

  • Take medicines as directed. This can help control blood sugar, blood pressure, blood clotting, and cholesterol levels.

  • Eat healthy. Eating right can cut your risk factors and help you lose weight. Try to limit the amount of processed or refined carbohydrates you eat at one time. Cut back on your total calories. Eat foods low in saturated fat and cholesterol. Eat fiber, including vegetables and whole grains, and cut down on salt. A dietitian or diabetes educator can help make a meal plan that works for you—even if you are on a limited budget. 

  • Limit alcohol. Drinking alcohol even in low or moderate amounts can increase your body's sensitivity to insulin.

  • Be active. can help reduce your weight, strengthen your heart, and lower your lipid levels and blood pressure. Exercise and activity are good for your whole body. Talk to your healthcare team about increasing your activity safely over time.

  • Keep your appointments. with your healthcare provider helps you stay healthy. Go in for checkups and lab tests as scheduled.

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